Eye surgery or ocular surgery is a surgical procedure that is done on the eye or related parts of the eye. For the most part, eye surgeries are done by ophthalmologists for treating eye problems that cannot be relieved with medication. Refractive eye surgeries are very common and correct eye conditions like nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism.
The orbit is the bony socket where the eye is located and problems in the eye socket may affect the normal functioning of the eye. Orbital and oculoplastic surgeries are done for correcting problems involving the eyelids, the lacrimal (tear) system, the socket and the orbit. Oculoplastic surgeries include blepharoplasty, in which the upper or lower eyelid is reshaped, either by removal of subcutaneous fat or excess skin. This procedure is often done in cases of idiopathic swollen eyelids.
Oculoplastic surgeries include surgical repair of the eyelids, for conditions like ectropion and entropion. Ocular prosthesis is a surgical procedure in which a damaged eye is removed and a prosthetic eye is implanted. Evisceration and enucleation are two methods that are used for removing the damaged eye.
Removal of orbital tumors, orbital reconstruction, correction of excessive tearing, etc come under this category. In some cases, the entire eye is removed from the socket. This surgical procedure is done in severe cases of retinoblastoma (a rare cancer of the eye which is seen in children), last stages of glaucoma, severe inflammation of the eye and congenital cystic eye.
Blepharospasm or excessive blinking is often treated with Botox surgeries. Typically Botox, or Botulinum toxin, is most commonly associated with comestic surgeries but can be used for non-cosmetic conditions like Strabismus, improper alignment of the eyes (crossed eyes). There are 2 main commercial types of Botox, Botulinum toxin type A and type B. Type A Botox is used mainly for movement disorders and cosmetic applications and Type B Botox is primarily for muscle-related pathologies but NOT for cosmetic purposes.