Eye surgery or ocular surgery is a surgical procedure that is done on the eye or related parts of the eye. For the most part, eye surgeries are done by ophthalmologists for treating eye problems that cannot be relieved with medication. Refractive eye surgeries are very common and correct eye conditions like nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism.
Refractive eye surgeries are done for correcting refractive errors like myopia and hyperopia so that use of corrective lens can be eliminated. These procedures involve reshaping the cornea and lasers are commonly used for this purpose. The most common refractive eye surgeries are LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) and PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy). LASIK is used for treating myopia (shortsightedness), hypermetropia (farsightedness) and astigmatism (inability of the eye to focus on a point object due to irregular curvature of the cornea or lens) and it involves removal of corneal tissue and reshaping of the cornea.
PRK is a surgical procedure uses an excimer laser is used to remove a small part of the corneal stroma from the anterior part of the eye and is preferred for those with thin corneas. Laser Assisted Sub-Epithelium Keratomileusis (LASEK) is a surgical procedure that is similar to PRK. Laser Thermal Keratoplasty is used for correcting presbyopia, and to improve vision that tends to deteriorate after the age of 40. Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy is done for correcting astigmatism, and to cure keratoconus (cornea becomes thin and conical) in the initial stages.
Refractive eye surgeries comprise a majority of the surgical procedures performed on the cornea. Another procedure that can be listed under this category is corneal transplant surgery, in which a diseased or cloudy cornea is replaced with a healthy donor cornea. Such transplantation is usually done when the cornea becomes cloudy and opaque. Corneal endothelial dystrophy, bacterial and viral infections of the cornea, and persistent corneal swelling after cataract surgery, are some medical conditions that may require corneal transplantation. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis is a new technology in this field. In this method, an artificial cornea is regenerated from a tooth of the patient and is used to replace the damaged cornea. This procedure is still being fine tuned and is yet not practised fully.